Resource for Historians, Educators, Students and Visitors since 1997
The French built the first fortress, Fort de l'Île-aux-Noix, in 1759 upon abandoning Carillon and Ste. Frédéric to the advancing British under Jeffrey Amherst. Retreating General Bourlamaque, having been ordered to retreat from the southern fortresses, hoped that Île-aux-Noix, closer to the center of New France, would be easier to re-supply and would be capable of holding off the enemy's advance. Governor Vaudreuil summed up the importance of this fort when he wrote: "Île-aux-Noix is the essential defensive point on this border, and we must hold it to the last, because if we had the misfortune to lose it the enemy would have no further obstacle to overcome to their penetrating into the interior of the Governmental District of Montréal, whence would follow the entire loss of the colony."1
Vaudreuil's gloomy prediction was to come true. Fort de Île-aux-Noix was besieged by British forces on August 16-20, 1760. The small French force, despite its ideal location in the midst of the river, did not prevail. Falling to overwhelming force, this important fortress became part of His British Majesty's dominion, as did the province of New France itself a short time later.
No sooner had Britain increased her empire with the acquisition of French Canada, than her Colonies to the south began to trouble the King. Rebellion broke out, and the restless American colonists attacked Canada in September, 1775. Île-aux-Noix was occupied by invading American forces. Used as a staging area for the successful attack on Montreal, the island was the scene of much misery as the retreating Americans fled south after their ignominious defeat at Quebec. The island was abandoned by the rebels. Governor Guy Carleton, ever conscious of the vital Richelieu River/Lake Champlain/Lake George transportation link to the south, made plans to finally secure the vital artery. Along with Crown Point, Ticonderoga, and Fort George, the strategic fortress at Île-aux-Noix was to be rebuilt and strengthened, although this time more as an advanced border post for the new fortifications being erected at Saint-Jean. This new fort, built in 1778, was smaller and incorporated part of the old French fortress into its construction. This fort replaced a series of blockhouses that had been built during the interim. The original British fortress was enlarged and improved upon over the years.
Île-aux-Noix was to remain an important base for some time, as the winds of war would continue to blow over the island from the south. Richard Ketchum, in his powerful work "Saratoga-Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War", tells us that the mighty invasion fleet of General John Burgoyne, passed an island of Île-aux-Noix "bristling with barracks, magazines, and blockhouses."2
Burgoyne sailed to his defeat, his mighty army halted by American forces at Saratoga. The American rebels secured their independence from Britain and Île-aux-Noix became even more important as a bulwark to protect British Canada from their unpredictable neighbors to the south.
Again, in 1812, the specter of war would darken the Richelieu/Champlain corridor. No sooner had war been declared between the Crown and her former colony than the Americans brashly invaded Canada. The environs of Île-aux-Noix were attacked when American forces struck the nearby blockhouse at Lacolle. At first unconvinced of the importance of the island militarily, Governor Prevost changed his mind when it was determined that the Americans were building a fleet of some size. Recognizing the strategic role the lake would play, Prevost hurriedly decided to dramatically strengthen the base at Île-aux-Noix and establish a naval dockyard here. A dramatic race for naval superiority then ensued. A large garrison was stationed on the island, with a small advance guard posted to the south on Ash Island. Activity reached a fever pitch in 1814, when the mighty Confiance, an enormous brigantine (by lake standards) was built at the island. The Confiance, displacing 1200 tons and bristling with 36 guns, was the largest vessel to ever traverse the lakes. The flagship of the British fleet, she sailed south to defeat at the Battle of Plattsburgh, September 11, 1814.
Once again, American forces emerged victorious in battle with Great Britain. Preserving her independence, the United States signed a treaty of Peace with the Crown on December 24, 1814. It would be some time before Canada would feel comfortable with her neighbors to the south. Île-aux-Noix was to undergo yet another military rebirth with the construction of the fortress illustrated here- Fort Lennox. Built over a ten-year period, 1819-1829, Fort Lennox was garrisoned until 1870, when Canada at last began to feel safe from the Americans.
Today, Fort Lennox is wonderfully preserved, a National Historic Site of Canada. Well interpreted by friendly, articulate and knowledgeable guides, Fort Lennox is a must for visitors to southern Quebec.
Images of Fort Lennox
*America's Historic Lakes is a favorite of educators around the world. You can
feel confident that the material
on this site is accurate, well-researched, properly cited and presented.
America's Historic Lakes by James P. Millard and Guest Contributors is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
James P. Millard
Post Office Box 262
South Hero, Vermont 05486-0262
Terms of Service and Disclaimer of Liability
The historical information on this web site is provided as a public service by James P. Millard. I have attempted to be as accurate as possible in my presentation of this historical material. However, I make no claims, guarantees or promises about the accuracy, currency, or completeness of the information provided. In no event shall the publisher; James P. Millard, be liable for any errors or omissions with respect to any information on this site. Material submitted by guest contributors and published on the site is the property of the contributor and may be removed at any time at my discretion or upon request of the contributor. This website occasionally provides links to sites of other organizations maintained by third parties. These links do not constitute an endorsement of the content, viewpoint, accuracy, opinions, policies, products, services, or accessibility of that website. Links to third-party websites are provided as a public service and convenience to users of our site; James P. Millard/America’s Historic Lakes does not control, endorse or recommend the content on sites we may link to. Once connected to another website, you are subject to the terms and conditions of that website.