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Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Richelieu River
HISTORY TIMELINE

By James P. Millard

Part II (a)- THE FALL OF NEW FRANCE  
aUGUST 1759- December 1760

Spelling and punctuation in quotes are as found in the original. Black text with underlines indicates a hyperlink.

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August 4
"Amherst with the main army reached Crown Point, where he traced out the lines of a new fort about two hundred yards west of the old French works, "as a defence in the future against the savage scalping parties which had so long been a terror to the frontier settlers of New York." The fort, though never completed, is said to have cost the English government over two million pounds sterling."**

General Jeffrey Amherst orders the building of a military road from Crown Point, New York across what we  now know as Vermont, to Fort Number 4 in Charlestown, New Hampshire. This road, built upon ancient Indian paths through the wilderness, will facilitate the passage of troops, supplies and arms to the new British stronghold at Crown Point.

August 16
" Deserters from the French informed Amherst that the French were encamped on Isle aux Noix where a strong position gave them command of the entrance to the Richelieu river."**

August 17

"Captain Loring of the English navy, realizing the fate of the campaign rested upon the relative strength of the two armies on the waters of the lake, commenced a large raft to carry six heavy guns, but the enemy, in a fortnight "launched a new vessel pierced for sixteen guns."**

September 3
"The construction of a sloop equal in size to that of the French was begun by the English."**

September
12

Amherst sends Rogers Rangers on a daring and controversial raid against the main Abenaki village in French Canada, St. Francis.  Reportedly, the Abenaki at St. Francis are decimated, losing some 200 in the surprise attack. When Rogers finally makes it back to Crown Point, some 79 days later, he has lost 49 of his 200 men. Roger’s account of the incident and Abenaki oral tradition differ greatly. The Abenaki refer to the attack as a “massacre”.1 Amherst's orders:

1759 September 13 Camp at Crown Point

“You are this night to set out with the detachment as ordered yesterday, viz. of 200 men, which you will take under your command, and proceed to Misisquey Bay [Missisquoi Bay], from whence you will march and attack the enemy’s settlements on the south-side of the river St. Lawrence, in such a manner as you shall judge most effectual to disgrace the enemy, and for the success and honor of his Majesty’s arms. Remember the barbarities that have been committed by the enemy’s Indian scoundrels on every occasion, where they had an opportunity of shewing their infamous cruelties on the King’s subjects, which they have done without mercy. Take your revenge, but do not forget that tho’ those villains have dastardly and promiscuously murdered the women and children of all ages, it is my orders that no women or children are killed or hurt. When you have executed your intended service, you will return with your detachment to camp, or to join me wherever the army may be.

Your’s, &c.

Jeff. Amherst”

Victorious British forces occupy Quebec, having defeated Montcalm, who along with his adversary General James Wolfe, perishes on the Plains of Abraham.

October 4
"... Rogers and his party, sent by Gen. Amherst to punish the St. Francis Indians, reached the neighborhood of their village and reconnoitering, found the natives engaged in a dance and festivities which lasted until four o'clock the next morning."**

October

" A little before dawn Rogers attacked and burned the Indian village and in the ensuing fight more than 200 warriors perished, besides women and children. Waiting but an hour the avenging party started back, taking five English captives which were set free."**

October 9
"The new brig reached Amherst from Ticonderoga 'with eighteen guns; seventy seamen and sixty soldiers embarked as marines.' "**

October
11 

"The raft, the brig from Ticonderoga and the new sloop (just built by the English) were ready for action"**

October
12

"The batteaux, containing a  wing of the 42nd Regiment under Major Reid, went astray among the sloops of the enemy, but succeeded in running the gauntlet of the French guns in safety with the loss of but one boat containing a lieutenant and 20 men. Towards evening, the wind increasing, the waters were lashed to fury and Amherst was compelled to seek the shelter of a bay on the western shore."**

October
13

"Captain Loring of Amherst's army pursued a French schooner and three sloops under the shelter of Valcour, where one of the sloops was grounded by her commander and two others sunk., while M. de Bolabarras and his men escaped through the woods. The storm prevented Loring from knowing this."** [Click here for an account of this engagement]

October
14

"After a stormy night, as day dawned, Loring perceived the abandoned vessels and left Lieut. Grant with the sloop to try to save the stranded vessel with her equipment, himself putting out into the lake in pursuit of any hostile sail."**

October 17
"A contrary wind arising, Amherst, though he had heard through a hostile chief, by flags of truce and letters of ceremony, that a British fleet lay before Quebec and battles had been fought, still lay helpless with his mighty army on the banks of the stormy lake."**

October
18

"The storm subsided and a gentle south wind arose. Amherst now hurried his troops on board bateaux and in a few hours reached the bay where the French vessels had a few days before been driven ashore, but the winds changed and a storm approached from the north."*
October 20
"After driving back the enemy by 'fifteen or twenty barges,' the enemy's intrenchments [sic] were reconnoitered at Isle aux Noix."**

October
21

"Winter approaching, Amherst fell back upon Crown Point and turned his attention to the completion of the defenses, building roads and bridges and nursing the sick among the Provincials. Capt. John Stark was sent with 200 rangers to cut a road through to Charlestown, N.H. This followed to a great extent the largest eastern branch of Otter Creek and the Black River, and was finished the next year."**
October 23
"After several days delay from adverse winds, the British fleet retired up the lake and any idea of attacking the frontier was abandoned for that season. In the meantime, Amherst attempted to communicate with Wolfe at Quebec by way of the country of the Abenakis, but his messengers were intercepted by the French."**

November
28

"Gen. Bourlemaque withdrew most of his forces from the frontier, leaving 300 men under Capt. Lusignan in the stockaded fort at Isle aux Noix. At Fort St. John there was a garrison of 200 and to protect the frontier the battalion of La Reine was quartered at Fort Chambly."**

December
1

"Rogers and his remaining men reached Crown Point. They had punished the St. Francis Indians and stopped further depredations, but 49 men had been lost on the return trip and those left on the banks of the Connecticut had barely saved themselves from starving by eating ground nuts and lily roots."**

1760

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1760

Roger's Rangers- Battle at Point au Fer

June 4
"Major Rogers, who had left Crown Point with 200 Rangers and 25 light infantry in bateaux in October, landed his men on the west shore of the lake, twelve miles south of Isle aux Noix, the rest of his party remaining on board the sloop which, under the command of Capt. Grant, had been sent back to Isle la Motte."** [Rogers actual account is quoted below]:

"...I, with the remainder, crossed Lake Champlain to the west-side [Point au Fer peninsula], and the 4th in the morning got into my boats, and landed with about 200 men, about twelve miles south of the island Noix [Isle aux Noix], with an intent to put in execution the General's orders to me of May 5th with all speed. Capt. Grant sent the two sloops to attend, which I ordered to cruize [sic] further down the lake than where I landed, and nearer to their fort, to command the attention of the enemy till I could get into their country." Rogers

 

June 5

"...I lay still all the 5th, there being a heavy rain, and the bushes so wet that both we and our provisions would have been greatly exposed by a march. In the afternoon of this day, several French boats appeared on the Lake, which were discovered by the two sloops, as well as by my party on the shore. These boats continued as near as they could to our vessels without endangering themselves, till after dark. Concluding their boats would cruize [sic] the whole night to watch the motions of our sloops, I imagined it would be a prudent step to send the troops back to Capt. Grant, the commander of these vessels, who lay near Mott Island [Isle la Motte]; I accordingly went to the troops in a boat after dark, and ordered them to return..."  Rogers

June 6
"Rogers was attacked while encamped near place of landing [the Point au Fer peninsula] by 350 French troops, sent from fort at Isle Aux Noix under command of M. LeForce and, after a short but severe engagement, defeated the French who returned to Isle Aux Noix, while he returned to Isle la Motte."**

"The enemy, who kept all night in their boats, having, by a strict look-out, discovered where I landed, sent a detachment from the island next morning to cut off my party. I discovered their intentions by my reconnoitering parties, who counted them as they crossed from the fort in the morning in their boats, to the west-shore and informed me that they were 350 in number. I had intelligence again that they were about a mile from us. Half after eleven they attacked me very briskly on my left, having on my right a bog, which they did not venture over, thro' which, however, by the edge of the lake, I sent seventy of my party to get round an attack them in the rear. This party was commanded by Lieut. Farrington. As soon as he began his attack, I pushed them in front, which broke them immediately. I pursued them with the greatest part of my people about a mile, where they retired to a thick cedar swamp, and divided into small parties. By this time it rained again very hard. I called my party immediately together at the boats, where I found that Ensign Wood of  the 17th regiment was killed, Capt. Johnson wounded through the body, a second shot thro' his left arm, and a third in his head. I had two men of the Light Infantry, and eight Rang4ers, wounded, and sixteen Rangers killed. We killed about forty of the enemy, and recovered about fifty firelocks. Their commanding officer, Monsieur la Force, was mortally hurt, and several of the party were likewise wounded. After the action I got the killed and maimed of my detachment together in battoes, returned with them to the Isle à Mot [sic] near which the brig lay. I dispatched one of the vessels to Crown Point, on board of which was put the corpse of Mr. Wood, but Capt. Johnson died on his passage thither; this vessel I ordered to bring more provisions. I buried the rest on an island, and then began to prepare for a second landing; being joined about this time by the Stockbridge Indian Company..." Rogers

June 9
"Rogers, after the severe engagement of the 6th, having retired to Isle la Motte, landed at the mouth of the Great Chazy River, passed around Isle Aux Noix, attacked and destroyed a small stockade fort below St. John's and returned to the lake with twenty-five prisoners."**

June
23

"Maj. Rogers reached Crown Point with 25 prisoners."**


August

General Jeffrey Amherst dispatches Colonel Haviland from Crown Point with a force of 3,300 to evict the French from Isle Aux Noix. On August 24, the British open fire upon the French garrison, prompting the French Commandant, M. de Bougainville, to withdraw three days later.  

August
16

"Col. Haviland, with a long line of bateaux bearing 1500 regular troops, 1800 provincials and some Indians under convoy of four armed vessels and an equal number of radeaux, moved north and encamped opposite the French post at Isle aux Noix."**

August
24

"Col. Haviland opened a fire of mortars upon the French post at Isle Aux Noix."**

August
25

"Haviland, having erected batteries opposite the fort on the main land, occupied by Bougainville with 1600 men, now made a vigorous attack upon the fleet of small vessels anchored on his enemy's flank and soon captured or dispersed them."**

August
27

"Murray, having been joined by Lord Rollo with the regiment from Louisburg, again sailed up the St. Lawrence and that same night M. de Bougainville retired from Isle aux Noix leaving a garrison of only 30 men who immediately surrendered to Haviland."**

August
29

"Bougainville, weakened by the loss of his fleet, at night abandoned his position and the forts at St. John's and Chambly were evacuated at the same time, their garrisons retreating towards Montreal."**

September
8

Montreal surrenders to the British. French dominion in Canada has ended. New France is no more. It is some three years before Canada is officially ceded to Britain in the Treaty of Paris, on February 10, 1763.

Sources/Notes:

Robert Rogers. Journals of Major Robert Rogers: Containing An Account of Several Excursions he made under the Generals who commanded upon the Continent of North America, during the late War. 1765. London: J. Millan, Whitehall. Reprinted numerous times by various publishers.
** THREE CENTURIES IN THE CHAMPLAIN VALLEY: A COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL FACTS AND INCIDENTS- TERCENTENARY EDITION. 1909: Compiled and Edited by Mrs. George Fuller Tuttle. Saranac Chapter, D.A.R. Plattsburgh, NY.

1
NE-DO-BA (Friends), Nancy Lecompte, President, Roger’s Raid- In their own words.
<http://www.avcnet.org/ne-do-ba/rrr_3.html> Oral History collected from various sources. August 1998 - updated Sept. 2001. (Accessed April 7, 2007)

This is the conclusion of TIMELINE, Part II (a) The Fall of New France

   
The TIMELINE continues HERE

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