Lake Champlain, Lake George,
and Richelieu River
By James P. Millard
PART I (aa)-New France and New England:
New type of Warfare in the New World
TIME SPAN 1689-1701
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King William's War: 1689-1697
King William's War begins shortly after the accession to the throne of William and Mary to the throne of England.
A French expedition of 210 men, including 96 Indians, travels up the lakes to Schenectady, NY. Virtually every house in the village is burned and some 60 men, women and children are massacred.
An English expedition led by Jacobus de Warm establishes a small fort across the lake from Crown Point at the location now known as Chimney Point. Another group marches on a French post on the Otter Creek while a fourth attacks Fort St. Louis (Chambly) on the Richelieu.
"Capt. Abram Schuyler was sent with nine men and a party of Mohawks under Lawrence, to Otter Creek to watch the enemy; while there he led a scout of eight Indians as far as Chumbly [sic], where he encountered a small party of French, of whom he killed two and took one prisoner."**
"Captain Abraham Schuyler was ordered to the mouth of Otter Creek with 9 men there "to watch day and night for one month, and daily communicate with Capt. D'Warm, concerning Lawrence, the Mohawk Chief, and his party of Indians." At the same time, D'Warm's orders were changed to select some other place at the Pass which he did, building a little stone fort at Chimney Point in Addison, the first possession or occupation by civilized men in Vermont."** [Fort Ste. Anne was completed in July, 1666 by the French, on what is today known as Isle La Motte. jpm]
"One of the observing parties on Lake Champlain sent in word that they had discovered the track of twelve French and Indians, proceeding in the direction of Albany. Warnings were sent out, but those who neglected to heed were attacked and killed."**
"An agreement was concluded between the provinces of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York by which each was to furnish its quota of troops for an expedition against Canada."**
"A small party of French and Indians of the Sault and Mountains returning from an expedition against the English in canoes, "being arrived at noon at Salmon river which falls into Lake Champlain" while at evening prayer were discovered by a war party of Algonquins and Abenakis." Paris Documents, Colonial History **
"At sunrise the next morning the Algonquins and Abenakis attacked the returning party, killing two and wounding ten which was much regretted by the French, since those who were defeated and taken were "our most faithful allies," among them the Great Mohawk."**
Paris Documents, Colonial History **
A major English expedition comprised of some 1400 soldiers and Indians, advances toward Lake Champlain. The army reaches as far as Wood Creek, (present day Whitehall, NY). After promised reinforcements of Indians with canoes do not show up, the army turns back- it is ill equipped to make the trip up the Lake.
"Capt. John Schuyler of Albany with a little band of 29 followers and 120 Indians, proceeded as far as Canaghsionere (probably Whitehall)."**
"Capt. John Schuyler with his band reached a point "one mile below the sand-bank of Chambly," where one of his Mohawk Indians died."**
"Schuyler reached La Prarie, opposite Montreal, intending to take the fort by surprise, but his savages gave the warwhoop on receiving word to advance and most of the French succeeded in gaining the fort. The invaders, however, burned the buildings, slaughtered 150 head of cattle, killed 6 and with 19 prisoners beat a rapid retreat."**
"Capt. John Schuyler and a band of whites and Indians camped at Fort St. Anne on their return from Canada, whither they had gone to make an attack on the settlers in and about La Prarie, in retaliation for the fearful massacre at Schenectady during the winter."**
"Capt. John Schuyler's party stopped at "the little stone fort," probably the one at Chimney Point built by D'Warm and Abraham Schuyler (who were the first English war party passing through the lake) in the spring."**
150 English, together with 300 Indians under Major Philip Schuyler, attack Canada via the lakes from Albany. Losses to the English are minimal, but the surprise attack costs the Canadians some 200 killed and wounded.
" 'This day returned the Messengers I had sent to bring back the Indians runn away, having found none I sent 21 Men to the carrying place for more provisions.'--Major Peter [Philip] Schuyler"**
" ' Being Thursday, we moved from the falls about noon, and pitched our tents in the narrows of the drowned lands 12 miles distant. Three of our Canoes being broken, I sent 3 Christians & one Indian to the end of the Lake St. Sackraman where our Mohawks are making Canoes to acquaint them that I will meet them at Chinanderoga.'--Schuyler"**
" 'We broke up from Chinanderoga, advanced to the Crowne point 20 miles distant and about one of the clock after noone pitched and send out spyes.'--Schuyler"**
"Major Schuyler 'sent out nine spyes vizt 3 Christians, three Mohawks, and three River Indians who advanced from Crowne point toward Regio, 30 miles distant--' These, 'the wind rising and blowing hard' returned to the main body now encamped ' on shoar at the Otter Kill' and reported 'fyers on the Eastern shore.' Again, spies were sent as before, 'but the woods being thick saw nobody' but judged from the number of fires that the enemy 'might be a considerable army' where upon three canoes were sent 'to keep strickt watch' of the approach of the enemy while Schuyler 'resolved by the Grace of God to withstand them, but nothing appeared that night--' and the party 'made a small Stone Fort breast high.' "--Schuyler**
" 'In the morning I sent out 5 Indians by land who discovered a great many fires and two houses, but found nothing but bones, the Indians being removed from thence.'--Schuyler "**
"Major Peter Schuyler arrived at the Isle la Motte with a flotilla of canoes and 266 men, of whom 120 were Whites and the rest Indians. Schuyler says the fort had been 'several years deserted.' "**
"Major Schuyler and his men encamped last night and this night on Isle la Motte."**
"Major Schuyler 'called a Council of Warr' and it was decided 'to fall upon Leprarie.' A little later four of their Mohawks sent out as spies were fired upon by a party of 'eight of the Enemy's praying Indians' and three wounded. These were carried 'on shoar' and cared for and the invaders encamped overnight 'within ten miles of Fort Shamblie.' On the second day they continued their advance towards Leprarie."**
"Major Peter Schuyler's party arrived in Albany with their "wounded in all 25." In the attack on Leprarie the French had been apprised of their coming and strength, and fought bravely but lost 200, including Indians, while the Albany party lost about 16."**
A French force under De Frontenac, again attacks English and Mohawk villages in the Schenectady region. They are chased back up the lakes to Canada, but not before killing dozens and taking more than 300 prisoners.
The Peace of Ryswick temporarily brings hostilities to a halt.
" 'The French guards (sent out from Canada, etc.), met him in a canoe, within the bounds of the government, at the Otter Creek eighteen miles, on this side of Reggio, the great rock
[Split Rock] that is in Corlear lake.'--David Schuyler in a letter to the Earl of Bellemont"**
The War of the
Spanish Succession begins in Europe. Conflict from this war is to
spill over into America with serious consequences for the
inhabitants of New France and New England.
** THREE CENTURIES IN THE CHAMPLAIN VALLEY: A COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL FACTS AND INCIDENTS- TERCENTENARY EDITION. 1909: Compiled and Edited by Mrs. George Fuller Tuttle. Saranac Chapter, D.A.R. Plattsburgh, NY.
The TIMELINE continues
"...a superb job of researching and
the effort alone in gathering these rare photographs and
interpreting the ruins is remarkable."
Dr. Russell P. Bellico-
"Sails and Steam in the Mountains: A Maritime and Military History of
Lake George and Lake Champlain"
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South Hero, Vermont 05486-0262
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