is the second of a continuing series of entries from the Voyages
of Samuel de Champlain, first published in 1613. To view Part I,
click here. For Champlain's
account of the discovery of the lake that bears his name, click
translation from the French by Charles Pomeroy Otis, Ph.D.
Republished by the Prince Society, Boston: 1878.
MEMOIR OF SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN
DESCRIPTION OF SABLE ISLAND; CAPE BRETON; LA HÈVE; PORT AU MOUTON;
PORT CAPE NEGRE; SABLE BAY AND CAPE; CORMORANT ISLAND; CAPE FOURCHU;
LONG ISLAND; BAY OF SAINT MARY; PORT SAINT MARGARET; AND OF ALL
NOTEWORTHY OBJECTS ALONG THIS COAST.
Sieur de Monts, by virtue of
his commission  having published in all the ports and harbors of
this kingdom the prohibition against the violation of the monopoly
of the fur-trade accorded him by his Majesty, gathered together
about one hundred and twenty artisans, whom he embarked in two
vessels: one of a hundred and twenty tons, commanded by Sieur de
Pont Gravé;  another, of a hundred and fifty tons, in which he
embarked himself,  together with several noblemen.
We set out from Havre de Grâce April 7th, 1604, and Pont Gravé April
10th, to rendezvous at Canseau,  twenty leagues from Cape
Breton.  But after we were in mid-ocean, Sieur de Monts changed
his plan, and directed his course towards Port Mouton, it being more
southerly and also more favorable for landing than Canseau.
On May 1st, we sighted Sable Island, where we ran a risk of being
lost in consequence of the error of our pilots, who were deceived in
their calculation, which they made forty leagues ahead of where we
This island is thirty leagues distant north and South from Cape
Breton, and in length is about fifteen leagues. It contains a small
lake. The island is very sandy, and there are no trees at all of
considerable size, only copse and herbage, which serve as pasturage
for the bullocks and cows, which the Portuguese carried there more
than sixty years ago, and which were very serviceable to the party
of the Marquis de la Roche. The latter, during their sojourn of
several years there, captured a large number of very fine black
foxes,  whose skins they carefully preserved. There are many
sea-wolves  there, with the skins of which they clothed
themselves since they had exhausted their own stock of garments. By
order of the Parliamentary Court of Rouen, a vessel was sent there
to recover them.  The directors of the enterprise caught codfish
near the island, the neighborhood of which abounds in shoals.
On the 8th of the same month, we sighted Cap de la Hève,  to the
east of which is a bay, containing several islands covered with
fir-trees. On the main land are oaks, elms, and birches. It joins
the coast of La Cadie at the latitude of 44° 5', and at 16° 15' of
the deflection of the magnetic needle, distant east-north-east
eighty-five leagues from Cape Breton, of which we shall speak
On the 12th of May, we entered another port,  five leagues from
Cap de la Hève, where we captured a vessel engaged in the fur-trade
in violation of the king's prohibition. The master's name was
Rossignol, whose name the port retained, which is in latitude 44°
CHAMPLAIN'S EXPLANATION OF THE
PORT DE LA HÈVE.
_The figures indicate fathoms of water_.
_A_. The place where vessels anchor.
_B_. A small river dry at low tide.
_C_. Places where the savages have their cabins.[Note: The letter C
is wanting, but the location of the cabins is obvious.]
_D_. Shoal at the entrance of the harbor. [Note: The letter D is
also wanting, but the figures sufficiently indicate the depth of the
_E_. A small island covered with wood. [Note: The letter E appears
twice by mistake.]
_F_. Cape de la Hève [Note: The letter F is likewise wanting. It has
been supposed to be represented by one of the E's on the small
island, but Cap de la Hève, to which it refers, was not on this
island, but on the main land. The F should have been, we think, on
the west of the harbor, where the elevation is indicated on the map.
_Vide_ note 22.]
* * * * *
On the 13th of May, we arrived at a very fine harbor, where there
are two little streams, called Port au Mouton,  which is seven
leagues distant from that of Rossignol. The land is very stony, and
covered with copse and heath. There are a great many rabbits, and a
quantity of game in consequence of the ponds there.
* * * * *
CHAMPLAIN'S EXPLANATION OF THE ACCOMPANYING MAP.
PORT DU ROSSIGNOL.
_The figures indicate fathoms of water_.
_A_. A river extending twenty-five leagues inland.
_B_. The place where vessels anchor.
_C_. Place on the main land where the savages have their dwellings.
_D_. Roadstead where vessels anchor while waiting for the tide.
_E_. Place on the island where the savages have their cabins.
_F_. Channel dry at low tide.
_G_. Shore of the main land. The dotted places indicate the shoals.
NOTE. It would seem as if in the title Rossynol, on the map, the two
dots on the _y_ instead of the _n_ were placed there by mistake.
* * * * *
As Soon as we had disembarked, each one commenced making huts after
his fashion, on a point at the entrance of the harbor near two
fresh-water ponds. Sieur de Monts at the Same time despatched a
shallop, in which he sent one of us, with some savages as guides as
bearers of letters, along the coast of La Cadie, to search for Pont
Gravé, who had a portion of the necessary supplies for our winter
sojourn. The latter was found at the Bay of All-Isles,  very
anxious about us (for he knew nothing of the change of plan); and
the letters were handed to him. As soon as be had read them, he
returned to his ship at Canseau, where he seized some Basque vessels
 engaged in the fur-trade, notwithstanding the prohibition of
his Majesty, and sent their masters to Sieur de Monts, who meanwhile
charged me to reconnoitre the coast and the harbors suitable for the
secure reception of our vessel.
With the purpose of carrying out his wishes, I set out from Port
Mouton on the 19th of May, in a barque of eight tons, accompanied by
Sieur Ralleau, his secretary, and ten men. Advancing along the
coast, we entered a harbor very convenient for vessels, at the end
of which is a small river, extending very far into the main land.
This I called the Port of Cape Negro,  from a rock whose distant
view resembles a negro, which rises out of the water near a cape
passed by us the same day, four leagues off and ten from Port
Mouton. This cape is very dangerous, on account of the rocks running
out into the sea. The shores which I saw, up to that point, are very
low, and covered with such wood as that seen at the Cap de la Hève;
and the islands are all filled with game. Going farther on, we
passed the night at Sable Bay,  where vessels can anchor without
The next day we went to Cape Sable,  also very dangerous, in
consequence of certain rocks and reefs extending almost a league
into the sea. It is two leagues from Sable Bay, where we had spent
the night before. Thence we went to Cormorant Island,  a league
distant, so called from the infinite number of cormorants found
there, of whose eggs we collected a cask full. From this island, we
sailed westerly about six leagues, crossing a bay, which makes up to
the north two or three leagues. Then we fell in with several islands
 distant two or three leagues from the main land; and, as well
as I could judge, some of them were two leagues in extent, others
three, and others were still smaller. Most of them are very
dangerous for large vessels to approach, on account of the tides and
the rocks on a level with the water. These islands are filled with
pines, firs, birches, and aspens. A little farther out, there are
four more. In one, we saw so great a quantity of birds, called
penguins,  that we killed them easily with sticks. On another,
we found the shore completely covered with sea-wolves,  of which
we captured as many as we wished. At the two others there is such an
abundance of birds of different sorts that one could not imagine it,
if he had not seen them. There are cormorants, three kinds of duck,
geese, _marmettes?_, bustards, sea-parrots, snipe, vultures, and
other birds of prey; gulls, sea-larks of two or three kinds; herons,
large sea-gulls, curlews, sea-magpies, divers, ospreys, _appoils?_,
ravens, cranes, and other sorts which I am not acquainted with, and
which also make their nests here.  We named these Sea-Wolf
Islands. They are in latitude 43° 30', distant from four to five
leagues from the main land, or Cape Sable. After spending pleasantly
some time there in hunting (and not without capturing much game), we
set out and reached a cape,  which we christened Port Fourchu
from its being fork-shaped, distant from five to six leagues from
the Sea-Wolf Islands. This harbor is very convenient for vessels at
its entrance; but its remoter part is entirely dry at low tide,
except the channel of a little stream, completely bordered by
meadows, which make this spot very pleasant. There is good
codfishing near the harbor. Departing from there, we sailed north
ten or twelve leagues without finding any harbor for our vessels,
but a number of very fine inlets or shores, where the soil seems to
be well adapted for cultivation. The woods are exceedingly fine
here, but there are few pines and firs. This coast is clear, without
islands, rocks, or shoals; so that, in our judgment, vessels can
securely go there. Being distant quarter of a league from the coast,
we went to an island called Long Island,  lying north-north-east
and south-south-west, which makes an opening into the great Baye
Françoise,  so named by Sieur de Monts.
This island is six leagues long, and nearly a league broad in some
places, in others only quarter of a league. It is covered with an
abundance of wood, such as pines and birch. All the coast is
bordered by very dangerous rocks; and there is no place at all
favorable for vessels, only little inlets for shallops at the
extremity of the island, and three or four small rocky islands,
where the savages capture many sea-wolves. There are strong tides,
especially at the little passage  of the island, which is very
dangerous for vessels running the risk of passing through it.
From Long Island passage, we sailed north-east two leagues, when we
found a cove  where vessels can anchor in safety, and which is
quarter of a league or thereabouts in circuit. The bottom is all
mire, and the surrounding land is bordered by very high rocks. In
this place there is a very good silver mine, according to the report
of the miner, Master Simon, who accompanied me. Some leagues farther
on there is a little stream called river Boulay  where the tide
rises half a league into the land, at the mouth of which vessels of
a hundred tons can easily ride at anchor. Quarter of a league from
here there is a good harbor for vessels, where we found an iron
mine, which our miner estimated would yield fifty per cent 
Advancing three leagues farther on to the northeast  we saw
another very good iron mine, near which is a river surrounded by
beautiful and attractive meadows. The neighboring soil is red as
blood. Some leagues farther on there is still another river, 
dry at low tide, except in its very small channel, and which extends
near to Port Royal. At the extremity of this bay is a channel, also
dry at low tide  surrounding which are a number of pastures and
good pieces of land for cultivation, where there are nevertheless
great numbers of fine trees of all the kinds previously mentioned.
The distance from Long Island to the end of this bay may be some six
leagues. The entire coast of the mines is very high, intersected by
capes, which appear round, extending out a short distance. On the
other side of the bay, on the south-east, the land is low and good,
where there is a very good harbor, having a bank at its entrance
over which it is necessary to pass. On this bar there is a fathom
and a half of water at low tide; but after passing it you find
three, with good bottom. Between the two points of the harbor there
is a pebbly islet, covered at full tide. This place extends half a
league inland. The tide falls here three fathoms, and there are many
shell-fish, such as muscles, cockles, and sea-snails. The soil is as
good as any that I have seen. I named this harbor Saint Margaret.
 This entire south-east coast is much lower than that of the
mines, which is only a league and a half from the coast of Saint
Margaret, being Separated by the breadth of the bay,  which is
three leagues at its entrance. I took the altitude at this place,
and found the latitude 45° 30', and a little more, the
deflection of the magnetic needle being 17° 16'.
After having explored as particularly as I could the coasts, ports,
and harbors, I returned, without advancing any farther, to Long
Island passage, whence I went back outside of all the islands in
order to observe whether there was any danger at all on the water
side. But we found none whatever, except there were some rocks about
half a league from Sea-Wolf Islands, which, however, can be easily
avoided, since the sea breaks over them. Continuing our voyage, we
were overtaken by a violent wind, which obliged us to run our barque
ashore, where we were in danger of losing her, which would have
caused us extreme perplexity. The tempest having ceased, we resumed
the sea, and the next day reached Port Mouton, where Sieur de Monts
was awaiting us from day to day, thinking only of our long stay,
 and whether some accident had not befallen us. I made a report
to him of our voyage, and where our vessels might go in Safety.
Meanwhile, I observed very particularly that place which is in
The next day Sieur de Monts gave orders to weigh anchor and proceed
to the Bay of Saint Mary,  a place which we had found to be
Suitable for our vessel to remain in, until we should be able to
find one more advantageous. Coasting along, we passed near Cape
Sable and the Sea-Wolf Islands, whither Sieur de Monts decided to go
in a shallop, and see some islands of which we had made a report to
him, as also of the countless number of birds found there.
Accordingly, he set out, accompanied by Sieur de Poutrincourt, and
several other noblemen, with the intention of going to Penguin
Island, where we had previously killed with sticks a large number of
these birds. Being somewhat distant from our ship, it was beyond our
power to reach it, and still less to reach our vessel; for the tide
was so strong that we were compelled to put in at a little island to
pass the night, where there was much game. I killed there some
river-birds, which were very acceptable to us, especially as we had
taken only a few biscuit, expecting to return the same day. The next
day we reached Cape Fourchu, distant half a league from there.
Coasting along, we found our vessel in the Bay of Saint Mary. Our
company were very anxious about us for two days, fearing lest some
misfortune had befallen us; but, when they saw us all safe, they
were much rejoiced.
Two or three days after our arrival, one of our priests, named
Mesire Aubry  from Paris, got lost so completely in the woods
while going after his sword, which he had forgotten, that he could
not find the vessel. And he was thus seventeen days without any
thing to subsist upon except some sour and bitter plants like the
sorrel, and some small fruit of little substance large as currants,
which creep upon the ground.  Being at his wits' end, without
hope of ever seeing us again, weak and feeble, he found himself on
the shore of Baye Françoise, thus named by Sieur de Monts, near Long
Island,  where his strength gave out, when one of our shallops
out fishing discovered him. Not being able to shout to them, he made
a sign with a pole, on the end of which he had put his hat, that
they should go and get him. This they did at once, and brought him
off. Sieur de Monts had caused a search to be made not only by his
own men, but also by the savages of those parts, who scoured all the
woods, but brought back no intelligence of him. Believing him to be
dead, they all saw him coming back in the shallop to their great
delight. A long time was needed to restore him to his usual
14. _Vide Commission du Roy au Sieur de Monts, pour l'habitation és
terres de la Cadie, Canada, et autres endroits en la
Nouvelle-France_, Histoire de a Nouvelle-France, par Marc Lescarbot,
Paris, 1612, Qvat. Liv. p. 431. This charter may also be found in
English in a _Collection of Voyages and Travels compiled from the
Library of the Earl of Oxford, by Thomas Osborne_, London, 1745,
Vol. II. pp. 796-798; also in _Murdoch's History of Nova Scotia_,
Halifax, 1865, Vol. I. pp. 21-24.
15. The second officer, or pilot, was, according to Lescarbot,
Captain Morel, of Honfleur.
16. This was under the direction of De Monts himself; and Captain
Timothée, of Havre de Grâce, was pilot, or the second officer.
17. Lescarbot writes this name Campseau; Champlain's orthography is
Canceau; the English often write Canso, but more correctly Canseau.
It has been derived from _Cansoke_, an Indian word, meaning _facing
the frowning cliffs_.
18. The Cape and Island of Cape Breton appear to have taken their
name from the fisherman of Brittany, who frequented that region as
early as 1504 --_Vide Champlain's Voyages_, Paris 1632, p. 9.
Thévet sailed along the coast in 1556, and is quoted by Laverdière,
as follows: "In this land there is a province called Compestre de
Berge, extending towards the south-east: in the eastern part of the
same is the cape or promontory of Lorraine, called so by us; others
have given it the came of the Cape of the Bretons, since the
Bretons, the Bisayans, and Normans repair thither, and coast along
on their way to Newfoundland to fish for codfish."
An inscription, "_tera que soy descuberta per pertonnes_," on an Old
Portuguese map of 1520, declares it to be a country discovered by
the Bretons. It is undoubtedly the oldest French name on any part of
North America. On Gastaldo's map in Mattiolo's Italian translation
of Ptolemy, 1548, the name of Breton is applied both to Nova Scotia
and to the Island of Cape Breton.
19. Winthrop says that Mr. John Rose, who was cast away on Sable
Island about 1633, "saw about eight hundred cattle, small and great,
all red, and the largest he ever saw: and many foxes, wherof some
perfect black."--_Whinthrop's Hist. New Eng._, Boston, 1853, Vol. I.
Champlain doubtless obtained his information in regard to the cattle
left upon Sable Island by the Portuguese from the from the report of
Edward Haies on the voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583:
"Sablon lieth to the seaward of Cape Briton about twenty-five
leagues, whither we were determined to goe vpon intelligence we had
of a Portugal (during our abode in S. Johns) who was himselfe
present, when the Portugals (aboue thirty yeeres past) did put in
the same Island both Neat and Swine to breede, which were since
exceedingly multiplied. This seemed vnto vs very happy tidings, to
haue in an Island lying so neere vnto the maine, which we intended
to plant vpon. Such store of cattell, whereby we might at all times
conueniently be relieued of victuall, and serued of store for
breed."--_Edward Haies in Hakluyt's Voyages_, London, ed. 1810. Vol.
III. p. 197.
20. "Loups marins," seals.
21. "The forty poor wretches whom he left on Sable Island found on
the seashore some wrecks of vessels, out of which they built
barracks to shield themselves from the severity of the weather. They
were the remains of Spanish vessels, which had sailed to settle Cape
Breton. From these same ships had come some sheep and cattle, which
had multiplied on Sable Island; and this was for some time a
resource for these poor exiles. Fish was their next food; and, when
their clothes were worn out, they made new ones of seal-skin. At
last, after a lapse of seven years, the king, having heard of their
adventure, obliged Chedotel, the pilot, to go for them; but he found
only twelve, the rest having died of their hardships. His majesty
desired to see those, who returned in the same guise as found by
Chedotel, covered with seal-skin, with their hair and beard of a
length and disorder that made them resemble the pretended
river-gods, and so disfigured as to inspire horror. The king gave
them fifty crowns apiece, and sent them home released from all
process of law."--_Shea's Charlevoix_, New York, 1866, Vol. I. p.
244. See also _Sir William Alexander and American Colonization_,
Prince Society, 1873, p. 174; _Murdoch's Nova Scotia_, Vol. I. p.
11; _Hakluyt_, Vol. II. pp. 679. 697.
22. This cape still bears the same name, and is the western point of
the bay at the mouth of a river, likewise of the same name, in the
county of Lunenberg, Nova Scotia. It is an abrupt cliff, rising up
one hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea. It could
therefore be seen at a great distance, and appears to have been the
first land sighted by them on the coast of La Cadie. A little north
of Havre de Grâce, in Normandy, the port from which De Monts and
Champlain had sailed, is to be seen the high, commanding, rocky
bluff, known as _Cap de la Hève_. The place which they first
sighted, similar at least in some respects, they evidently named
after this bold and striking headland, which may, perhaps, have been
the last object which they saw on leaving the shores of France. The
word _Hève_ seems to have had a local meaning, as may be inferred
from the following excerpt: "A name, in Lower Normandy, for cliffs
hollowed out below, and where fishermen search for crabs."-- _Littré_.
The harbor delineated on Champlain's local map is now called
Palmerston Bay, and is at the mouth of Petit River. The latitude of
this harbor is about 44° 15'. De Laet's description is fuller than
that of Champlain or Lescarbot.--_Vide Novus Orbis_, 1633, p. 51.
23. Liverpool, which for a long time bore the name of Port Rossignol;
the lake at the head of the river, about ten miles long and two or
three wide, the largest in Nova Scotia, still bears that
appellation. The latitude is 44° 2' 30".
24. "Lequel ils appelèrent _Le Port du Mouton_, à l'occasion d'un
mouton qui s'estant nové revint à bord, et fut mangé de bonne
guerre."-- _Histoire de la Nouvelle-France_, par Marc Lescarbot,
Paris, 1612, Qvat. Liv. p. 449. It still bears the name of Port
Mouton, and an island in the bay is called Mouton Island.
25. _Baye de Toutes-isles_. Lescarbot calls it "La Baye des Iles:"
and Charlevoix, "Baye de toutes les Isles." It was the bay, or
rather the waters, that stretch along the shores of Halifax County,
between Owl's Head and Liscomb River.
26. The confiscated provisions taken in the vessels of the Basque
fur-traders and in that of Rossignol were, according to Lescarbot,
found very useful. De Monts had given timely notice of his monopoly;
and, whether it had reached them or not, they were doubtless wrong
in law. Although De Monts treated them with gentleness, nevertheless
it is not unlikely that a compromise would have been better policy
than an entire confiscation of their property, as these Basques
afterwards, on their return to France, gave him serious
inconvenience. They were instrumental mainly in wresting from him
his charter of La Cadie.
27. _Le Port du Cap Negré_. This port still bears the name of Negro
Harbor. It is situated at the mouth of the Clyde, the small river
referred to in the text.
28. Near Cape Sable Island, at what is now known as Barrington
29. This is still called Cape Sable, and is the southern point of
Sable Island, or, more properly, the cluster of rock, and islets
that surround its southern extremity.
30. _Isle aux Cormorans_. It is difficult to distinguish with
certainty the island here referred to, but it was probably Hope
Island, as this lies directly in their way in crossing the bay, six
leagues wide, which is now known as Townsend Bay. The bird here
mentioned was the common cormorant. _Graculus carbo_, of a glossy
greenish-black color, back and wings bronzy-gray; about three feet
in length, and is common on our northern Atlantic coast: eminently
gregarious, particularly in the breeding season, congregating in
vast flocks. At the present time, it breeds in great numbers in
Labrador and Newfoundland, and in the winter migrates as far south
as the Middle States. They feed principally upon fish, lay commonly
two eggs, of a pale greenish color, overlaid with a white chalky
substance.--_Vide Cones's Key to Nor. Am. Birds_. Boston, 1872. p.
31. A cluster of islands now known as the Tousquet or Tusket
Islands. Further on, Champlain says they named them _Isles aux loups
marins_. Sea-Wolf Islands. About five leagues south of them is an
island now called Seal Island. The four more which he saw a little
further on were probably in Townsend Bay.
32. This is the Auk, family _Alcidae_, and must not be confounded
with the penguin of the southern hemisphere, although it is
described by the early navigators of the Northern Atlantic under
that appellation. In Anthony Parkhurst's letter to Hakluyt, 1578, he
says: "These birds are also called Penguins, and cannot flie, there
is more meate in one of these then in a goose: the Frenchmen that
fish neere the grand baie, do bring small store of flesh with them,
but victuall themselves alwayes with these birds."--_Hakluyt_,
London, ed. 1810, Vol. III. p. 172. Edward Haies, in his report of
the voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, say's: "We had sight of
an Island named Penguin, of a foule there breeding in abundance,
almost incredible, which cannot flie, their wings not able to carry
their body, being very large (not much lesse then a goose), and
exceeding fat: which the Frenchmen use to take without difficulty
upon that Island, and to barrell them up with salt." _Idem_, p. 191.
The Auk is confined to the northern hemisphere, where it represents
the penguins of the southern. Several species occur in the Northern
Atlantic in almost incredible numbers: they are all marine, feed on
fish and other animal substances exclusively, and lay from one to
three eggs on the bare rocks. Those seen by Champlain and other
early navigators were the Great Auk. _Alca impennis_, now nearly
extinct. It was formerly found on the coast of New England, as is
proved not only by the testimony of the primitive explorers, but by
the remains found in shell-heaps. The latest discovery was of one
found dead near St. Augustine, in Labrador, in 1870. A specimen of
the Great Auk is preserved in the Cambridge Museum.--_Vide Coues's
Key to North Am. Birds_, Boston, 1872. p. 338.
33. The sea-wolf or _loup marin_ of Champlain is the marine
mammiferous quadruped of the family Phocidae, known as the seal.
Sea-wolf was a name applied to it by the early navigators.--_Vide
Purchas's Pilgrims_, London, 1625. Vol. IV. p. 1385. Those here
mentioned were the common seal, _Phoca vitulina_, which are still
found on the coasts of Nova Scotia, vulgarly known as the harbor
seal. They are thinly distributed as far south as Long Island Sound,
but are found in great numbers in the waters of Labrador and
Newfoundland, where they are taken for the oil obtained from them,
and for the skins, which are used for various purposes in the arts.
34. The names given to these birds were such, doubtless, as were
known to belong to birds similar in color, size, and figure in
Europe. Some of them were probably misapplied. The name alone is not
sufficient for identification.
35. This cape, near the entrance to Yarmouth, still bears the same
name, from _fourchu_, forked. On a map of 1755, it is called Forked
Cape, and near it is Fork Ledge and Forked Harbor.--_Memorials of
English and French Commissaries_, London, 1755.
36. It still retains the name given to it by Champlain. It forms a
part of the western limit of St. Mary's Bay, and a line drawn from
it to the St. Croix, cutting the Grand Manan, would mark the
entrance of the Bay of Fundy.
37. The Bay of Fundy was thus first named "Baye Françoise" by De
Monts, and continued to be so called, as will appear by reference to
the early maps, as that of De Laet, 1633; Charlevoix, 1744; Rouge,
1778. It first appears distinctly on the carte of Diego Homem of
1558, but without name. On Cabot's Mappe-Monde, in "Monuments de la
Géographie," we find _rio fondo_, which may represent the Bay of
Fundy, and may have suggested the name adopted by the English, which
it still retains. Sir William Alexander's map, 1624, has Argal's
Bay; Moll's map, 1712, has Fundi Bay; that of the English and French
Commissaries, 1755, has Bay of Fundy, or Argal.
38. This strait, known by the name Petit Passage, separates Long
Island from Digby Neck.
39. A place called Little River, on Digby Neck.
40. Now known as Sandy Cove.
41. Lescarbot says of this iron mine, and of the silver mine above,
that they were proved not to be abundant.
42. This was probably near Rossway.
43. This was clearly Smith Creek or Smelt River, which rises near
Annapolis Basin, or the Port Royal Basin of the French.
44. He here doubtless refers to North Creek, at the north-eastern
extremity of St. Mary's Bay.
45. Now Weymouth Harbor, on the south-eastern shore of St. Mary's
Bay, at the mouth of Sissibou River, and directly opposite Sandy
Cove, near the iron mine mentioned above.
46. The distance across the bay at this point, as here stated, is
47. This is clearly a mistake; the true latitude at the Petit
Passage is 44° 23'. It may here be remarked that Champlain's
latitudes are very inaccurate, often varying more than half a
degree; doubtless owing to the imperfection of the instruments which
were employed in taking them.
48. They had been occupied in this exploration about three weeks,
Lescarbot says a month, but this is an overstatement. By a careful
examination of the text, it will appear that they departed from Port
Mouton on the 19th of May, and that several days after their return,
not less than nine, they were again in St. Mary's Bay, on the 16th
of June. They had been absent, therefore, about twenty-one days. The
latitude of Port Mouton, stated a little below to be 44°, is in fact
49. This bay, still retaining its ancient appellation, was so named
by Champlain on his first visit. "Ceste baye fut nommée la baye
Saincte Marie."--_Champlain's Voyages_, 1632, Quebec ed., Vol. V. p.
50. Nicholas Aubry, a young Parisian of good family, "vn certain
homme d'Église," as Lescarbot says, probably not long in holy
orders, had undertaken this voyage with De Monts to gratify his
desire to see the New World, though quite against the wishes of his
friends, who had sent in vain to Honfleur to prevent his
embarkation. After the search made by De Monts, with the sounding of
trumpets and the discharge of cannon, they left St. Mary's Bay,
having given up all expectation of his recovery. Some two weeks
afterward, an expedition was Sent out to St. Mary's Bay, conducted
by De Champdoré, an experienced pilot, with a mineralogist, to
search for silver and iron ore. While Some of the party were on a
fishing excursion, they rescued him, as stated in the text. The safe
return of the young and too venturesome ecclesiastic gave great
relief to De Monts, as Lescarbot says a Protestant was charged to
have killed him, because they quarrelled sometimes about their
religion.--_Vide Histoire de Nouvelle-France_, par Mare Lescarbot,
Paris, 1612, Qvat. Liv. p. 453.
51. The partridge-berry, Mitchella, a trailing evergreen, bearing
scarlet berries, edible but nearly tasteless, which remain through
the winter. It is peculiar to America, and this is probably the
first time it was noticed by any historical writer.
52. He was on the western side of Digby Neck, at its southern extremity,
near the Petit Passage on the shore of the Bay of Fundy.
is the conclusion of Chapter 2 of Voyages
here to view Chapter 3
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