Click here to learn more about this site Click here to return to our home page Click here to visit our "clickable" map of local historic sites Click here to visit Part I of our huge two-part Table of Contents Click here to visit our Gift Shop. The perfect place for unique and wonderful things! Click here to search the site Click here to learn about using the images and materials published on this site Click here to contact us

The Online Resource for Historians, Educators, Students and Visitors since 1997
This is a graphics-intensive publication, to fully experience the site we recommend you have JavaScript enabled.

Find us on Facebook!
Please consider "liking" our pages on Facebook and following us on Twitter!

Samuel de Champlain's Voyages
Volume II, Part II

The Journals of the intrepid French explorer who was the first European to discover Lake Champlain
 

This is the second of a continuing series of entries from the Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, first published in 1613. To view Part I, click here. For Champlain's account of the discovery of the lake that bears his name, click here...

Original translation from the French by Charles Pomeroy Otis, Ph.D. Republished by the Prince Society, Boston: 1878.

MEMOIR OF SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN
Volume II
1604-1610

CHAPTER II.

DESCRIPTION OF SABLE ISLAND; CAPE BRETON; LA HÈVE; PORT AU MOUTON; PORT CAPE NEGRE; SABLE BAY AND CAPE; CORMORANT ISLAND; CAPE FOURCHU; LONG ISLAND; BAY OF SAINT MARY; PORT SAINT MARGARET; AND OF ALL NOTEWORTHY OBJECTS ALONG THIS COAST.

 Sieur de Monts, by virtue of his commission [14] having published in all the ports and harbors of this kingdom the prohibition against the violation of the monopoly of the fur-trade accorded him by his Majesty, gathered together about one hundred and twenty artisans, whom he embarked in two vessels: one of a hundred and twenty tons, commanded by Sieur de Pont Gravé; [15] another, of a hundred and fifty tons, in which he embarked himself, [16] together with several noblemen.

We set out from Havre de Grâce April 7th, 1604, and Pont Gravé April 10th, to rendezvous at Canseau, [17] twenty leagues from Cape Breton. [18] But after we were in mid-ocean, Sieur de Monts changed his plan, and directed his course towards Port Mouton, it being more southerly and also more favorable for landing than Canseau.

On May 1st, we sighted Sable Island, where we ran a risk of being lost in consequence of the error of our pilots, who were deceived in their calculation, which they made forty leagues ahead of where we were.

This island is thirty leagues distant north and South from Cape Breton, and in length is about fifteen leagues. It contains a small lake. The island is very sandy, and there are no trees at all of considerable size, only copse and herbage, which serve as pasturage for the bullocks and cows, which the Portuguese carried there more than sixty years ago, and which were very serviceable to the party of the Marquis de la Roche. The latter, during their sojourn of several years there, captured a large number of very fine black foxes, [19] whose skins they carefully preserved. There are many sea-wolves [20] there, with the skins of which they clothed themselves since they had exhausted their own stock of garments. By order of the Parliamentary Court of Rouen, a vessel was sent there to recover them. [21] The directors of the enterprise caught codfish near the island, the neighborhood of which abounds in shoals.

On the 8th of the same month, we sighted Cap de la Hève, [22] to the east of which is a bay, containing several islands covered with fir-trees. On the main land are oaks, elms, and birches. It joins the coast of La Cadie at the latitude of 44° 5', and at 16° 15' of the deflection of the magnetic needle, distant east-north-east eighty-five leagues from Cape Breton, of which we shall speak hereafter.

On the 12th of May, we entered another port, [23] five leagues from Cap de la Hève, where we captured a vessel engaged in the fur-trade in violation of the king's prohibition. The master's name was Rossignol, whose name the port retained, which is in latitude 44° 15'.

CHAMPLAIN'S EXPLANATION OF THE ACCOMPANYING MAP.

PORT DE LA HÈVE.

_The figures indicate fathoms of water_.
_A_. The place where vessels anchor.
_B_. A small river dry at low tide.
_C_. Places where the savages have their cabins.[Note: The letter C is wanting, but the location of the cabins is obvious.]
_D_. Shoal at the entrance of the harbor. [Note: The letter D is also wanting, but the figures sufficiently indicate the depth of the water.]
_E_. A small island covered with wood. [Note: The letter E appears twice by mistake.]
_F_. Cape de la Hève [Note: The letter F is likewise wanting. It has been supposed to be represented by one of the E's on the small island, but Cap de la Hève, to which it refers, was not on this island, but on the main land. The F should have been, we think, on the west of the harbor, where the elevation is indicated on the map. _Vide_ note 22.]

* * * * *

On the 13th of May, we arrived at a very fine harbor, where there are two little streams, called Port au Mouton, [24] which is seven leagues distant from that of Rossignol. The land is very stony, and covered with copse and heath. There are a great many rabbits, and a quantity of game in consequence of the ponds there.

* * * * *

CHAMPLAIN'S EXPLANATION OF THE ACCOMPANYING MAP.

PORT DU ROSSIGNOL.

_The figures indicate fathoms of water_.

_A_. A river extending twenty-five leagues inland.
_B_. The place where vessels anchor.
_C_. Place on the main land where the savages have their dwellings.
_D_. Roadstead where vessels anchor while waiting for the tide.
_E_. Place on the island where the savages have their cabins.
_F_. Channel dry at low tide.
_G_. Shore of the main land. The dotted places indicate the shoals.

NOTE. It would seem as if in the title Rossynol, on the map, the two dots on the _y_ instead of the _n_ were placed there by mistake.

* * * * *

As Soon as we had disembarked, each one commenced making huts after his fashion, on a point at the entrance of the harbor near two fresh-water ponds. Sieur de Monts at the Same time despatched a shallop, in which he sent one of us, with some savages as guides as bearers of letters, along the coast of La Cadie, to search for Pont Gravé, who had a portion of the necessary supplies for our winter sojourn. The latter was found at the Bay of All-Isles, [25] very anxious about us (for he knew nothing of the change of plan); and the letters were handed to him. As soon as be had read them, he returned to his ship at Canseau, where he seized some Basque vessels [26] engaged in the fur-trade, notwithstanding the prohibition of his Majesty, and sent their masters to Sieur de Monts, who meanwhile charged me to reconnoitre the coast and the harbors suitable for the secure reception of our vessel.

With the purpose of carrying out his wishes, I set out from Port Mouton on the 19th of May, in a barque of eight tons, accompanied by Sieur Ralleau, his secretary, and ten men. Advancing along the coast, we entered a harbor very convenient for vessels, at the end of which is a small river, extending very far into the main land. This I called the Port of Cape Negro, [27] from a rock whose distant view resembles a negro, which rises out of the water near a cape passed by us the same day, four leagues off and ten from Port Mouton. This cape is very dangerous, on account of the rocks running out into the sea. The shores which I saw, up to that point, are very low, and covered with such wood as that seen at the Cap de la Hève; and the islands are all filled with game. Going farther on, we passed the night at Sable Bay, [28] where vessels can anchor without any danger.

The next day we went to Cape Sable, [29] also very dangerous, in consequence of certain rocks and reefs extending almost a league into the sea. It is two leagues from Sable Bay, where we had spent the night before. Thence we went to Cormorant Island, [30] a league distant, so called from the infinite number of cormorants found there, of whose eggs we collected a cask full. From this island, we sailed westerly about six leagues, crossing a bay, which makes up to the north two or three leagues. Then we fell in with several islands [31] distant two or three leagues from the main land; and, as well as I could judge, some of them were two leagues in extent, others three, and others were still smaller. Most of them are very dangerous for large vessels to approach, on account of the tides and the rocks on a level with the water. These islands are filled with pines, firs, birches, and aspens. A little farther out, there are four more. In one, we saw so great a quantity of birds, called penguins, [32] that we killed them easily with sticks. On another, we found the shore completely covered with sea-wolves, [33] of which we captured as many as we wished. At the two others there is such an abundance of birds of different sorts that one could not imagine it, if he had not seen them. There are cormorants, three kinds of duck, geese, _marmettes?_, bustards, sea-parrots, snipe, vultures, and other birds of prey; gulls, sea-larks of two or three kinds; herons, large sea-gulls, curlews, sea-magpies, divers, ospreys, _appoils?_, ravens, cranes, and other sorts which I am not acquainted with, and which also make their nests here. [34] We named these Sea-Wolf Islands. They are in latitude 43° 30', distant from four to five leagues from the main land, or Cape Sable. After spending pleasantly some time there in hunting (and not without capturing much game), we set out and reached a cape, [35] which we christened Port Fourchu from its being fork-shaped, distant from five to six leagues from the Sea-Wolf Islands. This harbor is very convenient for vessels at its entrance; but its remoter part is entirely dry at low tide, except the channel of a little stream, completely bordered by meadows, which make this spot very pleasant. There is good codfishing near the harbor. Departing from there, we sailed north ten or twelve leagues without finding any harbor for our vessels, but a number of very fine inlets or shores, where the soil seems to be well adapted for cultivation. The woods are exceedingly fine here, but there are few pines and firs. This coast is clear, without islands, rocks, or shoals; so that, in our judgment, vessels can securely go there. Being distant quarter of a league from the coast, we went to an island called Long Island, [36] lying north-north-east and south-south-west, which makes an opening into the great Baye Françoise, [37] so named by Sieur de Monts.

This island is six leagues long, and nearly a league broad in some places, in others only quarter of a league. It is covered with an abundance of wood, such as pines and birch. All the coast is bordered by very dangerous rocks; and there is no place at all favorable for vessels, only little inlets for shallops at the extremity of the island, and three or four small rocky islands, where the savages capture many sea-wolves. There are strong tides, especially at the little passage [38] of the island, which is very dangerous for vessels running the risk of passing through it.

From Long Island passage, we sailed north-east two leagues, when we found a cove [39] where vessels can anchor in safety, and which is quarter of a league or thereabouts in circuit. The bottom is all mire, and the surrounding land is bordered by very high rocks. In this place there is a very good silver mine, according to the report of the miner, Master Simon, who accompanied me. Some leagues farther on there is a little stream called river Boulay [40] where the tide rises half a league into the land, at the mouth of which vessels of a hundred tons can easily ride at anchor. Quarter of a league from here there is a good harbor for vessels, where we found an iron mine, which our miner estimated would yield fifty per cent [41] Advancing three leagues farther on to the northeast [42] we saw another very good iron mine, near which is a river surrounded by beautiful and attractive meadows. The neighboring soil is red as blood. Some leagues farther on there is still another river, [43] dry at low tide, except in its very small channel, and which extends near to Port Royal. At the extremity of this bay is a channel, also dry at low tide [44] surrounding which are a number of pastures and good pieces of land for cultivation, where there are nevertheless great numbers of fine trees of all the kinds previously mentioned. The distance from Long Island to the end of this bay may be some six leagues. The entire coast of the mines is very high, intersected by capes, which appear round, extending out a short distance. On the other side of the bay, on the south-east, the land is low and good, where there is a very good harbor, having a bank at its entrance over which it is necessary to pass. On this bar there is a fathom and a half of water at low tide; but after passing it you find three, with good bottom. Between the two points of the harbor there is a pebbly islet, covered at full tide. This place extends half a league inland. The tide falls here three fathoms, and there are many shell-fish, such as muscles, cockles, and sea-snails. The soil is as good as any that I have seen. I named this harbor Saint Margaret. [45] This entire south-east coast is much lower than that of the mines, which is only a league and a half from the coast of Saint Margaret, being Separated by the breadth of the bay, [46] which is three leagues at its entrance. I took the altitude at this place, and found the latitude 45° 30', and a little more,[47] the deflection of the magnetic needle being 17° 16'.

After having explored as particularly as I could the coasts, ports, and harbors, I returned, without advancing any farther, to Long Island passage, whence I went back outside of all the islands in order to observe whether there was any danger at all on the water side. But we found none whatever, except there were some rocks about half a league from Sea-Wolf Islands, which, however, can be easily avoided, since the sea breaks over them. Continuing our voyage, we were overtaken by a violent wind, which obliged us to run our barque ashore, where we were in danger of losing her, which would have caused us extreme perplexity. The tempest having ceased, we resumed the sea, and the next day reached Port Mouton, where Sieur de Monts was awaiting us from day to day, thinking only of our long stay, [48] and whether some accident had not befallen us. I made a report to him of our voyage, and where our vessels might go in Safety. Meanwhile, I observed very particularly that place which is in latitude 44°.

The next day Sieur de Monts gave orders to weigh anchor and proceed to the Bay of Saint Mary, [49] a place which we had found to be Suitable for our vessel to remain in, until we should be able to find one more advantageous. Coasting along, we passed near Cape Sable and the Sea-Wolf Islands, whither Sieur de Monts decided to go in a shallop, and see some islands of which we had made a report to him, as also of the countless number of birds found there. Accordingly, he set out, accompanied by Sieur de Poutrincourt, and several other noblemen, with the intention of going to Penguin Island, where we had previously killed with sticks a large number of these birds. Being somewhat distant from our ship, it was beyond our power to reach it, and still less to reach our vessel; for the tide was so strong that we were compelled to put in at a little island to pass the night, where there was much game. I killed there some river-birds, which were very acceptable to us, especially as we had taken only a few biscuit, expecting to return the same day. The next day we reached Cape Fourchu, distant half a league from there. Coasting along, we found our vessel in the Bay of Saint Mary. Our company were very anxious about us for two days, fearing lest some misfortune had befallen us; but, when they saw us all safe, they were much rejoiced.

Two or three days after our arrival, one of our priests, named Mesire Aubry [50] from Paris, got lost so completely in the woods while going after his sword, which he had forgotten, that he could not find the vessel. And he was thus seventeen days without any thing to subsist upon except some sour and bitter plants like the sorrel, and some small fruit of little substance large as currants, which creep upon the ground. [51] Being at his wits' end, without hope of ever seeing us again, weak and feeble, he found himself on the shore of Baye Françoise, thus named by Sieur de Monts, near Long Island, [52] where his strength gave out, when one of our shallops out fishing discovered him. Not being able to shout to them, he made a sign with a pole, on the end of which he had put his hat, that they should go and get him. This they did at once, and brought him off. Sieur de Monts had caused a search to be made not only by his own men, but also by the savages of those parts, who scoured all the woods, but brought back no intelligence of him. Believing him to be dead, they all saw him coming back in the shallop to their great delight. A long time was needed to restore him to his usual strength.

ENDNOTES:

14. _Vide Commission du Roy au Sieur de Monts, pour l'habitation és terres de la Cadie, Canada, et autres endroits en la Nouvelle-France_, Histoire de a Nouvelle-France, par Marc Lescarbot, Paris, 1612, Qvat. Liv. p. 431. This charter may also be found in English in a _Collection of Voyages and Travels compiled from the Library of the Earl of Oxford, by Thomas Osborne_, London, 1745, Vol. II. pp. 796-798; also in _Murdoch's History of Nova Scotia_, Halifax, 1865, Vol. I. pp. 21-24.

15. The second officer, or pilot, was, according to Lescarbot, Captain Morel, of Honfleur.

16. This was under the direction of De Monts himself; and Captain Timothée, of Havre de Grâce, was pilot, or the second officer.

17. Lescarbot writes this name Campseau; Champlain's orthography is Canceau; the English often write Canso, but more correctly Canseau. It has been derived from _Cansoke_, an Indian word, meaning _facing the frowning cliffs_.

18. The Cape and Island of Cape Breton appear to have taken their name from the fisherman of Brittany, who frequented that region as early as 1504 --_Vide Champlain's Voyages_, Paris 1632, p. 9.

Thévet sailed along the coast in 1556, and is quoted by Laverdière, as follows: "In this land there is a province called Compestre de Berge, extending towards the south-east: in the eastern part of the same is the cape or promontory of Lorraine, called so by us; others have given it the came of the Cape of the Bretons, since the Bretons, the Bisayans, and Normans repair thither, and coast along on their way to Newfoundland to fish for codfish."

An inscription, "_tera que soy descuberta per pertonnes_," on an Old Portuguese map of 1520, declares it to be a country discovered by the Bretons. It is undoubtedly the oldest French name on any part of North America. On Gastaldo's map in Mattiolo's Italian translation of Ptolemy, 1548, the name of Breton is applied both to Nova Scotia and to the Island of Cape Breton.

19. Winthrop says that Mr. John Rose, who was cast away on Sable Island about 1633, "saw about eight hundred cattle, small and great, all red, and the largest he ever saw: and many foxes, wherof some perfect black."--_Whinthrop's Hist. New Eng._, Boston, 1853, Vol. I. p. 193.

Champlain doubtless obtained his information in regard to the cattle left upon Sable Island by the Portuguese from the from the report of Edward Haies on the voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583:

"Sablon lieth to the seaward of Cape Briton about twenty-five leagues, whither we were determined to goe vpon intelligence we had of a Portugal (during our abode in S. Johns) who was himselfe present, when the Portugals (aboue thirty yeeres past) did put in the same Island both Neat and Swine to breede, which were since exceedingly multiplied. This seemed vnto vs very happy tidings, to haue in an Island lying so neere vnto the maine, which we intended to plant vpon. Such store of cattell, whereby we might at all times conueniently be relieued of victuall, and serued of store for breed."--_Edward Haies in Hakluyt's Voyages_, London, ed. 1810. Vol. III. p. 197.

20. "Loups marins," seals.

21. "The forty poor wretches whom he left on Sable Island found on the seashore some wrecks of vessels, out of which they built barracks to shield themselves from the severity of the weather. They were the remains of Spanish vessels, which had sailed to settle Cape Breton. From these same ships had come some sheep and cattle, which had multiplied on Sable Island; and this was for some time a resource for these poor exiles. Fish was their next food; and, when their clothes were worn out, they made new ones of seal-skin. At last, after a lapse of seven years, the king, having heard of their adventure, obliged Chedotel, the pilot, to go for them; but he found only twelve, the rest having died of their hardships. His majesty desired to see those, who returned in the same guise as found by Chedotel, covered with seal-skin, with their hair and beard of a length and disorder that made them resemble the pretended river-gods, and so disfigured as to inspire horror. The king gave them fifty crowns apiece, and sent them home released from all process of law."--_Shea's Charlevoix_, New York, 1866, Vol. I. p. 244. See also _Sir William Alexander and American Colonization_, Prince Society, 1873, p. 174; _Murdoch's Nova Scotia_, Vol. I. p. 11; _Hakluyt_, Vol. II. pp. 679. 697.

22. This cape still bears the same name, and is the western point of the bay at the mouth of a river, likewise of the same name, in the county of Lunenberg, Nova Scotia. It is an abrupt cliff, rising up one hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea. It could therefore be seen at a great distance, and appears to have been the first land sighted by them on the coast of La Cadie. A little north of Havre de Grâce, in Normandy, the port from which De Monts and Champlain had sailed, is to be seen the high, commanding, rocky bluff, known as _Cap de la Hève_. The place which they first sighted, similar at least in some respects, they evidently named after this bold and striking headland, which may, perhaps, have been the last object which they saw on leaving the shores of France. The word _Hève_ seems to have had a local meaning, as may be inferred from the following excerpt: "A name, in Lower Normandy, for cliffs hollowed out below, and where fishermen search for crabs."-- _Littré_. The harbor delineated on Champlain's local map is now called Palmerston Bay, and is at the mouth of Petit River. The latitude of this harbor is about 44° 15'. De Laet's description is fuller than that of Champlain or Lescarbot.--_Vide Novus Orbis_, 1633, p. 51.

23. Liverpool, which for a long time bore the name of Port Rossignol; the lake at the head of the river, about ten miles long and two or three wide, the largest in Nova Scotia, still bears that appellation. The latitude is 44° 2' 30".

24. "Lequel ils appelèrent _Le Port du Mouton_, à l'occasion d'un mouton qui s'estant nové revint à bord, et fut mangé de bonne guerre."-- _Histoire de la Nouvelle-France_, par Marc Lescarbot, Paris, 1612, Qvat. Liv. p. 449. It still bears the name of Port Mouton, and an island in the bay is called Mouton Island.

25. _Baye de Toutes-isles_. Lescarbot calls it "La Baye des Iles:" and Charlevoix, "Baye de toutes les Isles." It was the bay, or rather the waters, that stretch along the shores of Halifax County, between Owl's Head and Liscomb River.

26. The confiscated provisions taken in the vessels of the Basque fur-traders and in that of Rossignol were, according to Lescarbot, found very useful. De Monts had given timely notice of his monopoly; and, whether it had reached them or not, they were doubtless wrong in law. Although De Monts treated them with gentleness, nevertheless it is not unlikely that a compromise would have been better policy than an entire confiscation of their property, as these Basques afterwards, on their return to France, gave him serious inconvenience. They were instrumental mainly in wresting from him his charter of La Cadie.

27. _Le Port du Cap Negré_. This port still bears the name of Negro Harbor. It is situated at the mouth of the Clyde, the small river referred to in the text.

28. Near Cape Sable Island, at what is now known as Barrington Harbor.

29. This is still called Cape Sable, and is the southern point of Sable Island, or, more properly, the cluster of rock, and islets that surround its southern extremity.

30. _Isle aux Cormorans_. It is difficult to distinguish with certainty the island here referred to, but it was probably Hope Island, as this lies directly in their way in crossing the bay, six leagues wide, which is now known as Townsend Bay. The bird here mentioned was the common cormorant. _Graculus carbo_, of a glossy greenish-black color, back and wings bronzy-gray; about three feet in length, and is common on our northern Atlantic coast: eminently gregarious, particularly in the breeding season, congregating in vast flocks. At the present time, it breeds in great numbers in Labrador and Newfoundland, and in the winter migrates as far south as the Middle States. They feed principally upon fish, lay commonly two eggs, of a pale greenish color, overlaid with a white chalky substance.--_Vide Cones's Key to Nor. Am. Birds_. Boston, 1872. p. 302.

31. A cluster of islands now known as the Tousquet or Tusket Islands. Further on, Champlain says they named them _Isles aux loups marins_. Sea-Wolf Islands. About five leagues south of them is an island now called Seal Island. The four more which he saw a little further on were probably in Townsend Bay.

32. This is the Auk, family _Alcidae_, and must not be confounded with the penguin of the southern hemisphere, although it is described by the early navigators of the Northern Atlantic under that appellation. In Anthony Parkhurst's letter to Hakluyt, 1578, he says: "These birds are also called Penguins, and cannot flie, there is more meate in one of these then in a goose: the Frenchmen that fish neere the grand baie, do bring small store of flesh with them, but victuall themselves alwayes with these birds."--_Hakluyt_, London, ed. 1810, Vol. III. p. 172. Edward Haies, in his report of the voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, say's: "We had sight of an Island named Penguin, of a foule there breeding in abundance, almost incredible, which cannot flie, their wings not able to carry their body, being very large (not much lesse then a goose), and exceeding fat: which the Frenchmen use to take without difficulty upon that Island, and to barrell them up with salt." _Idem_, p. 191.

The Auk is confined to the northern hemisphere, where it represents the penguins of the southern. Several species occur in the Northern Atlantic in almost incredible numbers: they are all marine, feed on fish and other animal substances exclusively, and lay from one to three eggs on the bare rocks. Those seen by Champlain and other early navigators were the Great Auk. _Alca impennis_, now nearly extinct. It was formerly found on the coast of New England, as is proved not only by the testimony of the primitive explorers, but by the remains found in shell-heaps. The latest discovery was of one found dead near St. Augustine, in Labrador, in 1870. A specimen of the Great Auk is preserved in the Cambridge Museum.--_Vide Coues's Key to North Am. Birds_, Boston, 1872. p. 338.

33. The sea-wolf or _loup marin_ of Champlain is the marine mammiferous quadruped of the family Phocidae, known as the seal. Sea-wolf was a name applied to it by the early navigators.--_Vide Purchas's Pilgrims_, London, 1625. Vol. IV. p. 1385. Those here mentioned were the common seal, _Phoca vitulina_, which are still found on the coasts of Nova Scotia, vulgarly known as the harbor seal. They are thinly distributed as far south as Long Island Sound, but are found in great numbers in the waters of Labrador and Newfoundland, where they are taken for the oil obtained from them, and for the skins, which are used for various purposes in the arts.

34. The names given to these birds were such, doubtless, as were known to belong to birds similar in color, size, and figure in Europe. Some of them were probably misapplied. The name alone is not sufficient for identification.

35. This cape, near the entrance to Yarmouth, still bears the same name, from _fourchu_, forked. On a map of 1755, it is called Forked Cape, and near it is Fork Ledge and Forked Harbor.--_Memorials of English and French Commissaries_, London, 1755.

36. It still retains the name given to it by Champlain. It forms a part of the western limit of St. Mary's Bay, and a line drawn from it to the St. Croix, cutting the Grand Manan, would mark the entrance of the Bay of Fundy.

37. The Bay of Fundy was thus first named "Baye Françoise" by De Monts, and continued to be so called, as will appear by reference to the early maps, as that of De Laet, 1633; Charlevoix, 1744; Rouge, 1778. It first appears distinctly on the carte of Diego Homem of 1558, but without name. On Cabot's Mappe-Monde, in "Monuments de la Géographie," we find _rio fondo_, which may represent the Bay of Fundy, and may have suggested the name adopted by the English, which it still retains. Sir William Alexander's map, 1624, has Argal's Bay; Moll's map, 1712, has Fundi Bay; that of the English and French Commissaries, 1755, has Bay of Fundy, or Argal.

38. This strait, known by the name Petit Passage, separates Long Island from Digby Neck.

39. A place called Little River, on Digby Neck.

40. Now known as Sandy Cove.

41. Lescarbot says of this iron mine, and of the silver mine above, that they were proved not to be abundant.

42. This was probably near Rossway.

43. This was clearly Smith Creek or Smelt River, which rises near Annapolis Basin, or the Port Royal Basin of the French.

44. He here doubtless refers to North Creek, at the north-eastern extremity of St. Mary's Bay.

45. Now Weymouth Harbor, on the south-eastern shore of St. Mary's Bay, at the mouth of Sissibou River, and directly opposite Sandy Cove, near the iron mine mentioned above.

46. The distance across the bay at this point, as here stated, is nearly accurate.

47. This is clearly a mistake; the true latitude at the Petit Passage is 44° 23'. It may here be remarked that Champlain's latitudes are very inaccurate, often varying more than half a degree; doubtless owing to the imperfection of the instruments which were employed in taking them.

48. They had been occupied in this exploration about three weeks, Lescarbot says a month, but this is an overstatement. By a careful examination of the text, it will appear that they departed from Port Mouton on the 19th of May, and that several days after their return, not less than nine, they were again in St. Mary's Bay, on the 16th of June. They had been absent, therefore, about twenty-one days. The latitude of Port Mouton, stated a little below to be 44°, is in fact 43° 57'.

49. This bay, still retaining its ancient appellation, was so named by Champlain on his first visit. "Ceste baye fut nommée la baye Saincte Marie."--_Champlain's Voyages_, 1632, Quebec ed., Vol. V. p. 716.

50. Nicholas Aubry, a young Parisian of good family, "vn certain homme d'Église," as Lescarbot says, probably not long in holy orders, had undertaken this voyage with De Monts to gratify his desire to see the New World, though quite against the wishes of his friends, who had sent in vain to Honfleur to prevent his embarkation. After the search made by De Monts, with the sounding of trumpets and the discharge of cannon, they left St. Mary's Bay, having given up all expectation of his recovery. Some two weeks afterward, an expedition was Sent out to St. Mary's Bay, conducted by De Champdoré, an experienced pilot, with a mineralogist, to search for silver and iron ore. While Some of the party were on a fishing excursion, they rescued him, as stated in the text. The safe return of the young and too venturesome ecclesiastic gave great relief to De Monts, as Lescarbot says a Protestant was charged to have killed him, because they quarrelled sometimes about their religion.--_Vide Histoire de Nouvelle-France_, par Mare Lescarbot, Paris, 1612, Qvat. Liv. p. 453.

51. The partridge-berry, Mitchella, a trailing evergreen, bearing scarlet berries, edible but nearly tasteless, which remain through the winter. It is peculiar to America, and this is probably the first time it was noticed by any historical writer.

52. He was on the western side of Digby Neck, at its southern extremity,
near the Petit Passage on the shore of the Bay of Fundy.
 

This is the conclusion of Chapter 2 of Voyages
Click here to view Chapter 3

Help Support This Site. Visit our Book Shop!

Sources/Notes:

Samuel de Champlain. 1567-1635. "Voyages of Samuel de Champlain" Edited by Edmund F. Slafter, (Boston: Prince Society 1878)

Samuel de Champlain image: Warwick Stevens Carpenter. The Summer Paradise in History. Albany: General Passenger Department, The Delaware and Hudson Company. 1914. Courtesy of John and Barbara Gallagher.

*America's Historic Lakes is a favorite of educators around the world. You can feel confident that the material
on this site is accurate, well-researched, properly cited and presented.

Creative Commons License
America's Historic Lakes by James P. Millard and Guest Contributors is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

 Privacy Policy


James P. Millard
Post Office Box 262
South Hero, Vermont 05486-0262
contact@historiclakes.org

Terms of Service and Disclaimer of Liability

The historical information on this web site is provided as a public service by James P. Millard. I  have attempted to be as accurate as possible in my presentation of this historical material. However, I make no claims, guarantees or promises about the accuracy, currency, or completeness of the information provided. In no event shall the publisher; James P. Millard, be liable for any errors or omissions with respect to any information on this site. Material submitted by guest contributors and published on the site is the property of the contributor and may be removed at any time at my discretion or upon request of the contributor. This website occasionally provides links to sites of other organizations maintained by third parties. These links do not constitute an endorsement of the content, viewpoint, accuracy, opinions, policies, products, services, or accessibility of that website. Links to third-party websites are provided as a public service and convenience to users of our site; James P. Millard/America’s Historic Lakes does not control, endorse or recommend the content on sites we may link to. Once connected to another website, you are subject to the terms and conditions of that website.