is the eleventh in a continuing series of entries from the Voyages
of Samuel de Champlain, first published in 1613. To view Part I,
click here. For Champlain's
account of the discovery of the lake that bears his name, click
translation from the French by Charles Pomeroy Otis, Ph.D.
Republished by the Prince Society, Boston: 1878.
MEMOIR OF SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN
WHAT TOOK PLACE AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF SIEUR DE MONTS, UNTIL, NO
TIDINGS OF WHAT HE HAD PROMISED BEING RECEIVED, WE DEPARTED FROM
PORT ROYAL TO RETURN TO FRANCE.
As soon as Sieur de Monts had departed,
a portion of the forty or forty-five who remained began to make
gardens. I, also, for the sake of occupying my time, made one, which
was surrounded with ditches full of water, in which I placed some
fine trout, and into which flowed three brooks of very fine running
water, from which the greater part of our settlement was supplied. I
made also a little sluice-way towards the shore, in order to draw
off the water when I wished. This spot was entirely surrounded by
meadows, where I constructed a summer-house, with some fine trees,
as a resort for enjoying the fresh air. I made there, also, a little
reservoir for holding salt-water fish, which we took out as we
wanted them. I took especial pleasure in it, and planted there some
seeds which turned out well. But much work had to be laid out in
preparation. We resorted often to this place as a pastime; and it
seemed as if the little birds round about took pleasure in it, for
they gathered there in large numbers, warbling and chirping so
pleasantly that I think I never heard the like.
The plan of the settlement was ten fathoms long and eight wide,
making the distance round thirty-six. On the eastern side is a
store-house, occupying the width of it, and a very fine cellar from
five to six feet deep. On the northern side are the quarters of
Sieur de Monts, handsomely finished. About the back yard are the
dwellings of the workmen. At a corner of the western side is a
platform, where four cannon were placed; and at the other corner,
towards the east, is a palisade shaped like a platform, as can be
seen from the accompanying illustration.
* * * * *
CHAMPLAIN'S EXPLANATION OF THE ACCOMPANYING MAP.
L'ABITASION DU PORT ROYAL.
_The figures indicate fathoms of water_.
_A_. Dwelling of the artisans.
_B_. Platform where the cannon were placed.
_C_. The store-house.
_D_. Dwelling of Sieur de Pont Gravé and Champlain.
_E_. The blacksmith's shop.
_F_. Palisade of pickets.
_G_. The bakery.
_H_. The kitchen.
_O_. Small house where the equipment of our barques was stored. This
Sieur de Poutrincourt afterwards had rebuilt, and Sieur Boulay dwelt
there when Sieur de Pont Gravé returned to France.
_P_. Gate to our habitation.
_Q_. The Cemetery.
_R_. The River.
NOTES. The habitation of Port Royal was on the present site of the
hamlet of Lower Granville in Nova Scotia. _I_. Points to the
garden-plots. _K_. Takes the place of _Q_, which is wanting on the
map, and marks the place of the cemetery, where may be seen the
crucifix, the death's-head, and cross-bones. _L_. Takes the place of
_R_, which is wanting, to indicate the river. _M_. Indicates the
moat on the north side of the dwelling. _N_. Probably indicates the
dwelling of the gentlemen, De Monts and others.
* * * * *
Some days after the buildings were completed, I went to the river
St. John to find the savage named Secondon, the same that conducted
Prevert's party to the copper mine, which I had already gone in
search of with Sieur de Monts, when we were at the Port of Mines,
though without success.  Having found him, I begged him to go
there with us, which he very readily consented to do, and proceeded
to show it to us. We found there some little pieces of copper of the
thickness of a sou, and others still thicker imbedded in grayish and
red rocks. The miner accompanying us, whose name was Master Jacques,
a native of Sclavonia, a man very skilful in searching for minerals,
made the entire circuit of the hills to see if he could find any
gangue,  but without success. Yet he found, some steps from
where we had taken the pieces of copper before mentioned, something
like a mine, which, however, was far from being one. He said that,
from the appearance of the soil, it might prove to be good, if it
were worked; and that it was not probable that there could be pure
copper on the surface of the earth, without there being a large
quantity of it underneath. The truth is that, if the water did not
cover the mines twice a day, and if they did not lie in such hard
rocks, something might be expected from them.
After making this observation, we returned to our settlement, where
we found some of our company sick with the _mal de la terre_, but
not so seriously as at the Island of St. Croix; although, out of our
number of forty-five, twelve died, including the miner, and five
were sick, who recovered the following spring. Our surgeon, named
Des Champs, from Honfleur, skilful in his profession, opened some of
the bodies, to see whether he might be more successful in
discovering the cause of the maladies that our surgeons had been the
year before. He found the parts of the body affected in the same
manner as those opened at the Island of St. Croix, but could
discover no means of curing them, any more than the other surgeons.
On the 20th of December, it began to snow, and some ice passed along
before our Settlement. The winter was not so sharp as the year
before, nor the snow so deep, or of so long duration. Among other
incidents, the wind was so violent on the 20th of February, 1605,
 that it blew over a large number of trees, roots and all, and
broke off many others. It was a remarkable sight. The rains were
very frequent; which was the cause of the mild winter in comparison
with the past one, although it is only twenty-five leagues from Port
Royal to St. Croix.
On the first day of March, Pont Gravé ordered a barque of seventeen
or eighteen tons to be fitted up, which was ready, on the 15th, in
order to go on a voyage of discovery along the coast of Florida.
 With this view, we set out on the 16th following, but were
obliged to put in at an island to the south of Manan, having gone
that day eighteen leagues. We anchored in a sandy cove, exposed to
the sea and the south wind.  The latter increased, during the
night, to such an impetuosity that we could not stand by our anchor,
and were compelled, without choice, to go ashore, at the mercy of
God and the waves. The latter were so heavy and furious that while
we were attaching the buoy to the anchor, so as to cut the cable at
the hawse-hole, it did not give us time, but broke straightway of
itself. The wind and the sea cast us as the wave receded upon a
little rock, and we awaited only the moment to see our barque break
up, and to save ourselves, if possible, upon its fragments. In these
desperate straits, after we had received several waves, there came
one so large and fortunate for us that it carried us over the rock,
and threw us on to a little sandy beach, which insured us for this
time from shipwreck.
The barque being on shore, we began at once to unload what there was
in her, in order to ascertain where the damage was, which was not so
great as we expected. She was speedily repaired by the diligence of
Champdoré, her master. Having been put in order, she was reloaded;
and we waited for fair weather and until the fury of the sea should
abate, which was not until the end of four days, namely, the 21st of
March, when we set out from this miserable place, and proceeded to
Port aux Coquilles,  seven or eight leagues distant. The latter
is at the mouth of the river St. Croix, where there was a large
quantity of snow. We stayed there until the 29th of the month, in
consequence of the fogs and contrary winds, which are usual at this
season, when Pont Gravé determined to put back to Port Royal, to see
in what condition our companions were, whom we had left there sick.
Having arrived there, Pont Gravé was attacked with illness, which
delayed us until the 8th of April.
On the 9th of the month he embarked, although still indisposed, from
his desire to see the coast of Florida, and in the belief that a
change of air would restore his health. The same day we anchored and
passed the night at the mouth of the harbor, two leagues distant
from our settlement.
The next morning before day, Champdoré came to ask Pont Gravé if he
wished to have the anchor raised, who replied in the affirmative, if
he deemed the weather favorable for setting out. Upon this,
Champdoré had the anchor raised at once, and the sail spread to the
wind, which was north-north-east, according to his report. The
weather was thick and rainy, and the air full of fog, with
indications of foul rather than fair weather.
While going out of the mouth of the harbor,  we were suddenly
carried by the tide out of the passage, and, before perceiving them,
were driven upon the rocks on the east-north-east coast.  Pont
Gravé and I, who were asleep, were awaked by hearing the sailors
shouting and exclaiming, "We are lost!" which brought me quickly to
my feet, to see what was the matter. Pont Gravé was still ill, which
prevented him from rising as quickly as he wished. I was scarcely on
deck, when the barque was thrown upon the coast; and the wind, which
was north, drove us upon a point. We unfurled the mainsail, turned
it to the wind, and hauled it up as high as we could, that it might
drive us up as far as possible on the rocks, for fear that the
reflux of the sea, which fortunately was falling, would draw us in,
when it would have been impossible to save ourselves. At the first
blow of our boat upon the rocks, the rudder broke, a part of the
keel and three or four planks were smashed, and some ribs stove in,
which frightened us, for our barque filled immediately; and all that
we could do was to wait until the sea fell, so that we might get
ashore. For, otherwise, we were in danger of our lives, in
consequence of the swell, which was very high and furious about us.
The sea having fallen, we went on shore amid the storm, when the
barque was speedily unloaded, and we saved a large portion of the
provisions in her, with the help of the savage, Captain Secondon and
his companions, who came to us with their canoes, to carry to our
habitation what we had saved from our barque, which, all shattered
as she was, went to pieces at the return of the tide. But we, most
happy at having saved our lives, returned to our settlement with our
poor savages, who stayed there a large part of the winter; and we
praised God for having rescued us from this shipwreck, from which we
had not expected to escape so easily.
The loss of our barque caused us great regret, since we found
ourselves, through want of a vessel, deprived of the prospect of
being able to accomplish the voyage we had undertaken. And we were
unable to build another; for time was pressing, and although there
was another barque on the stocks, yet it would have required too
long to get it ready, and we could scarcely have made use of it
before the return from France of the vessels we were daily
This was a great misfortune, and owing to the lack of foresight on
the part of the master, who was obstinate, but little acquainted
with seamanship, and trusting only his own head. He was a good
carpenter, skilful in building vessels, and careful in provisioning
them with all necessaries, but in no wise adapted to sailing them.
Pont Gravé, having arrived at the settlement, received the evidence
against Champdoré, who was accused of having run the barque on shore
with evil intent. Upon such information, he was imprisoned and
handcuffed, with the intention of taking him to France and handing
him over to Sieur de Monts, to be treated as justice might direct.
On the 15th of June, Pont Gravé, finding that the vessels did not
return from France, had the handcuffs taken off from Champdoré, that
he might finish the barque which was on the stocks, which service he
discharged very well.
On the 16th of July, the time when we were to leave, in case the
vessels had not returned, as was provided in the commission which
Sieur de Monts had given to Pont Gravé, we set out from our
settlement to go to Cape Breton or to Gaspé in search of means of
returning to France, since we had received no intelligence from
Two of our men remained, of their own accord, to take care of the
provisions which were left at the settlement, to each of whom Pont
Gravé promised fifty crowns in money, and fifty more which he agreed
to estimate their pay at when he should come to get them the
following year. 
There was a captain of the savages named Mabretou,  who
promised to take care of them, and that they should be treated as
kindly as his own children. We found him a friendly savage all the
time we were there, although he had the name of being the worst and
most traitorous man of his tribe.
181. _Vide antea_, pp. 25, 26.
182. _La gangue_. This is the technical word for the matrix, or
substance containing the ore of metals.
183. For 1605, read 1606.
184. Florida, as then known, extended from the peninsula
indefinitely to the north.
185. Seal Cove, which makes up between the south-west end of the
Grand Manan and Wood Island, the latter being South of Manan and is
plainly the island referred to in the text. This cove is open to the
South wind and the sea in a storm. Wood Island has a sandy shore
with occasional rocks.
186. _Port aux Coquilles_, the harbor of shells. This port was near
the northeastern extremity of Campobello Island, and was probably
Head Harbor, which affords a good harbor of refuge.--_Vide_
Champlain's Map of 1612, reference 9.
187. By "harbor" is here meant Annapolis Bay. This wreck of the
barque took place on the Granville side of Digby Strait, where the
tides rise from twenty-three to twenty-Seven feet.
188. North-east. The text has _norouest_, clearly a misprint for _nordest_.
189. These two men were M. La Taille and Miquelet, of whom Lescarbot
speaks in terms of enthusiastic praise for their patriotic courage
in voluntarily risking their lives for the good of New France. _Vide
Histoire Nouvelle France_, Paris, 1612, pp. 545, 546.
190. _Mabretou_, by Lescarbot written Membertou.
is the conclusion of Chapter 11 of Voyages
here for Chapter 12
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